Caching Introduction

Caching means to store content generated during a request/response cycle and re-use the content when serving the same request.

Types of Rails Caching

  1. Page caching
  2. Action caching
  3. Fragment caching

As page caching and Action caching has been removed from Rails 4, lets discuss about fragment caching here.

Fragment caching:

Generally, a web application will use multiple components to build a web page (eg: ruby , JS, jQuery etc..,). Each component will use different cache mechanisms. Fragment caching allows to cache a particular view block and serve the copy when requested.

In view file article.html.erb

<% @articles.each do |article| do %>
<% cache article do %>
<%= %>
<%= %>
<% end %>
<% end %>

On the first request to this page, Rails will cache this fragment. The cache entry will look something like views/articles/1-201505056193031061005000/bea67108094918eeba42cd4a6e786901

cache entry understanding:

/1-201505056193031061005000 РThe middle part has two break ups. The article_id and updated_at attribute from the article object. The updated_at  attribute is used to check if the cached object has changed. if it is not changed, then

bea67108094918eeba42cd4a6e786901 – This is a HTML template tree hash (a MD5 hash). This is to determine if the cached HTML has changed. Even when the HTML has changed, the caching will become invalid. This will change when the HTML template change and thus this will expire the old cache.

Conditional Caching:

If the caching has to be done in a condition, we can use either cache_if / cache_unless.

<% @articles.each do |article| do %>
<% cache_if is_admin? article do %>
<%= %>
<%= %>
<% end %>
<% end %>


Russian Doll Caching:

Nesting of a cached fragment inside another cached fragment is called Russian Doll Caching.

Example: articles/index.html.erb

<% cache article do %>
<%= %>
<%= %>
<%= render article.authors %>
<% end %>
<% end %>

Which in turn has a cached fragment authors/show.html.erb

<% cache author do %>
<%= %>
<% end %>

So, whenever there is a change in the author object, the updated_at of the author object will be updated. This will expire the caching of author template. But as the article’s updated_at is not changed, the articles/index.html.erb will be served from the cache and still has the old data.

To overcome this issue, we should set touch :true in the author model.


class Article < ApplicationRecord
has_many :authors

class Author < ApplicationRecord
belongs_to :article, touch :true

By adding touch, any change in author’s updated_at will also expire article’s cache.


To Be Continued…


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